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Trends in Arctic temperature and sea ice

LifeLinkedtoIce Trends in Arctic temperature and sea ice 

A. Land–Ocean Temperature Index annual means, 1880 to 2011. Data (smoothed over ten-year periods) are temperature

 

anomalies compared to the 1951–1980 mean. Data: NASA/GISS
B. Annual minimum ice extent, 1979–2013, based on satellite monitoring. Data are anomalies compared to the 1981–2010
mean. Data: NSIDC; methodology: Fetterer et al. 2002, updated 2009 [35]
C. Satellite image captured at the 2012 minimum of ice extent. Source: NASA/Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio
D. Sea ice cover over the past 1,450 years. The blue line is based on proxy records (mainly ice cores), while the dotted line
is based on historical ice records and satellite monitoring. Proxy data were calibrated against modern observations. Data
were smoothed statistically over 40-year periods. The record extends to 2008. Source: Kinnard et al. 2011 [13]
E. Distribution of multi-year ice, 2008 compared with 1985–2000 mean. Source: NASA no date [36] 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference it source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Timeline of evolution of some modern ice-associated marine mammal species

LifeLinkedtoIce Box1

 

Data from Arnason et al. 2006 [32] (seals); Xiong et al. 2009 [33] (toothed whales: beluga and narwhal); Sasaki et al. 2005 [34] (bowhead whale); Hailer et al. 2012 [30] (polar bear); McEvoy et al. 2011 [31] (humans). Drawings from Wikimedia Commons (bowhead whale: F.W. True, drawn in 1884; polar bear: P.S. Foresman)

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Northern Hemisphere sea ice distribution, March and September, 2012

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice distribution

 

Figure 5. Northern Hemisphere sea ice distribution, March and September, 2012 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

Source: National Snow and Ice Data Center

Some features of the sea ice environment

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice environment

 

Figure 6. Some features of the sea ice environment

Joan Eamer

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic marine food web.

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic marine food web

 

Figure 7. Arctic marine food web.

Adapted from Darnis et al. 2012 [57]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

57. Darnis, G., Robert, D., Pomerleau, C., Link, H., Archambault, P., Nelson, R.J., Geoffroy, M., Tremblay, J.E., Lovejoy, C., Ferguson, S.H., Hunt, B.P.V., and Fortier, L. 2012. Current state and trends in Canadian Arctic marine ecosystems: II. Heterotrophic food web, pelagic-benthic coupling, and biodiversity. Climatic Change 115(1): 179-205. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0483-8.

Amphipods attached to ice crystals in Arctic coastal fast ice and two common ice amphipod species

LifeLinkedtoIce Amphipods

 

 

The large Gammarus amphipod grows up to about 6 cm in length.
Photos: Shawn Harper/UAF (left photo); B.Bluhm/UAF/CoML (Apherusa); Raskoff/MPC (Gammarus)

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

Primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton from December to June, in a fjord near Nuuk, Greenland, 2005/2006

LifeLinkedtoIce Algae and phytoplankton

Ice algae accounts for less than 1% of the annual primary production at this coastal location, but the bloom occurs at least a month before any primary production is available from phytoplankton. Farther offshore, ice algae contribute much more to the total annual production: as much as over 50% [4]. 

 

Adapted from Mikkelsen et al. 2008 [58]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

Melosira arctica under ice and on the ocean floor

LifeLinkedtoIce Melosira arctica under ice and on the ocean floor

Photos: M. Fernandez-Mendez (left) and A. Boetius/Alfred Wegener Institute (right); Seija Hällfors/ Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (inset microscopic view of the diatom Melosira arctica)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7. 

Change in ecosystem structure that may result from reduction of sea ice and related temperature changes: an illustration based on the Chukchi Sea food web

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice Ecosystem structure

Change in ecosystem structure that may result from reduction of sea ice and related temperature changes: an illustration based on the Chukchi Sea food web 

 

Adapted from Hopcroft et al. 2008 [95], based on Carroll and Carroll 2003 [98] 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

 

 

 

95. Hopcroft, R., Bluhm, B., and Gradinger, R. (eds). 2008. Arctic Ocean synthesis: Analysis of climate change impacts in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas with strategies for future research. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, and North Pacific Research Board, Fairbanks, Alaska.

 

98. Carroll, M.L., and Carroll, J. 2003. The Arctic seas. In Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems. Edited by Black, K.D., and Shimmield, G.B. CRC Press, Boca Raton, US. pp. 127-156.

 

 

Diversity of Arctic marine phytoplankton: based on surveys in the Russian Arctic

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton

 

The number of species depends partly on what has been studied. Proportions vary somewhat around the Arctic, but diatoms and dinoflagellates are the most diverse groups everywhere. The greatest sampling effort has been in the Laptev Sea, Hudson Bay, and the Norwegian sector of the Barents Sea. Species shown are among the most commonly recorded.
Data from Poulin et al. 2011 [65]

Photos (taken through light microscopes): clockwise from top right Dr. Gerhard Dieckmann/Alfred Wegener Institute; Gert Hansen/Nordic Microalgae (www.nordicmicroalgae.org); Alexandra/Alfred Wegener Institute; Marine Productivity
Laboratory, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in water temperature and salinity (A) and density of phytoplankton of two size ranges (B), Canada Basin, 2004 to 2008

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton density

Samples are from the upper ocean during summer. Points on the graphs are averages of data for 23 stations that were distributed across the Canada Basin.

From Li et al. 2009 [127]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic benthic diversity

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic benthic diversity

 

There are about 4,500 known species of multi-cellular benthic invertebrates, with highest diversity in the shelf areas, and about 160 to 210 species of seaweeds (macroalgae).

 

Based on Josefson et al. 2013 [73] and Bluhm et al. 2011 [63]
Photo: Benthic samples from the Chukchi Sea, 2004–2005 Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic (photo by B. Bluhm/UAF/RUSALCA 2004)

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Zones of high benthic biomass correspond with marginal ice zones: Barents, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi seas, based on long-term Russian datasets

LifeLinkedtoIce Zones of high benthic biomass

 

 

The lines are “isolines”, meaning they connect areas with the same value of benthic biomass (left column) or ice concentration (right column). They are displayed the same way a topographic map shows elevation contours. For example, the area enclosed by the isoline labeled 500 in the map in the lower left hand corner has a biomass of 500 g/m2 or more. The zones with average long durations of 20% ice cover (right column) are polynyas and marginal ice zones associated with land-fast ice. Statistical analysis reveals that the zones of high biomass are significantly associated with the zones of long duration of ice-edge conditions.

 

Figure prepared for this report by S. Denisenko, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, based on archived data from 950 stations from scientific expeditions conducted 1932–1935, 1968–1970, 1975–1986 and 1993–1995. Ice concentration data from Schlitzer 2012 [173], calculated as 1960–1990 averages

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Number of fish species found in Arctic waters

LifeLinkedtoIce Number of fish species found in Arctic waters

Species numbers are approximate.

 

Drawing is of a polar cod.
Data from Christiansen et al. 2013 [207]

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

A simple sea ice food web with polar cod, amphipods, ringed seal and polar bear

LifeLinkedtoIce Simple sea ice food web

 

Polar cod feed on amphipods under the ice and rest in sheltered spaces in the ice such as the seawater wedges shown.
Based on Gradinger and Bluhm 2004 [208];

photos: Gradinger and Bluhm / UAF/NOAA/CoML (top), Shawn Harper/ UAF (bottom)

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Thick-billed murre colony size in relation to spring sea ice conditions, West Greenland

LifeLinkedtoIce Thick billed murre colony size

 

 

Based on analyses of data from areas around 46 murre colonies, grouped into regions. Colony sizes are historical maximum estimates of numbers of birds (representing carrying capacity) rather than current population sizes. This approach avoids the confounding factor of overharvest in some areas in recent decades. Sea ice conditions are based on satellite measurements, 1979 to 2004.

1Rate of change of fraction of open water, units X 10-3
2Statistical measure of variability of the rate of change: residual from mean, units X 10-2
Source: Laidre et al. 2008 [242] 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Declining fall weights of female polar bears, western Hudson Bay, 1980 to 2007

LifeLinkedtoIce Declining fall weights of female polar bear

Body weights were estimated for females on their own, and thus likely to be pregnant.

Source: Stirling and Derocher 2012 [269]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in body condition for the Baffin Bay polar bear subpopulation and relationship with sea ice conditions, 1977 to 2010

LifeLinkedtoIce Trends in body condition Baffin Bay polar bear

The sea ice measurement used represents sea ice habitat available to the bears mid-May to mid-October.

 

“0” means no trend. “NA” means not enough data to analyze.
Source: Rode et al. 2012 [279]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in terrestrial spring snow cover for the Arctic, 1967–2012

LifeLinkedtoIce Trends in terrestrial spring snow cover

 

Data are June averages for all Northern Hemisphere snow cover. Values are standardized anomalies with respect to the 1988–2007 mean. Solid lines are five-year running means.
From Derksen and Brown 2012 [89], data from NOAA CDR (satellite monitoring)

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Trends in the timing of peak phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic Ocean, 1979–2009

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton blooms

 

 

The rate of change is very rapid at some locations. For example, the peak algal bloom occurred in early September in Foxe Basin and in the Kara Sea in the mid-1990s but had shifted to mid-July by 2009, a change of about 50 days.
Source: Kahru et al. 2011 [214]

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Number of polar bear maternity dens observed on Hopen Island in relation to the date of sea ice formation the previous autumn

LifeLinkedtoIce Polar bear maternity dens

Source: Derocher et al. 2011 [329]

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Pathways of impacts on Arctic humans resulting from changes in sea ice and associated changes in biodiversity

LifeLinkedtoIce Pathways

 

Figure 38. Pathways of impacts on Arctic humans resulting from changes in sea ice and associated changes in biodiversity

Joan Eamer

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Settlements dot Arctic coastlines even in sparsely populated areas such as Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

LifeLinkedtoIce Settlements

 

 

Adapted from Hovelsrud et al. 2011
[196]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

The circumpolar distribution of the Inuit: Canada, Alaska (US), Greenland (Denmark) and Chukotka (Russia)

LifeLinkedtoIce Distribution of Inuit

 

 

 

From Ford 2009 [372], based on data from Makavik Cartographic Services

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Mean September sea ice thickness averaged over seven selected models at present and by the time the Arctic is nearly sea-ice-free

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice thickness

Note the scale differences between the two panels.

 

From Wang and Overland 2012 [17]

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Communities of microscopic algae and other single-celled organisms, as well as the larger ice fauna, dwell in the saltwater-filled pores and channels of sea ice

LifeLinkedtoIce Communities of microscopic algae

 

As sea ice forms, droplets of water with high salt content form and these join into narrow “brine channels” that riddle the ice.
Based on Krembs and Deming 2011 [100] 

 

  

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Cell concentration and number of microalgal species throughout a core of first-year ice from the Chukchi Sea, June 1998

LifeLinkedtoIce Cell concentration

 

 

The most numerous species identified in the core were ice-associated diatoms, but several different algal classes were represented. Microalgae were distributed throughout the core, but abundance and species composition varied with ice depth. The diversity was among the highest ever recorded in Arctic sea ice: 237 species were identified from the core. Depending on the species, the sizes of microalgae can range from a few micrometers to a few hundreds of micrometers.
Data from von Quillfeldt et al. 2003 [72]

 

 

  

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Primary production by phytoplankton size class for the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North Pacific oceans and for the global ocean

LifeLinkedtoIce Primary production by phytoplankton

Estimates of average annual primary production by size class were based on relationships with pigment types as 

detected by satellite monitoring, 1998 to 

2007.

 

Data from Uitz et al. 2010 [107]

 

 

  

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Phytoplankton bloom in the southern Barents Sea, August 14, 2011 and relationship between timing of blooms and sea ice

LifeLinkedtoIce Phytoplankton bloom Barents Sea small

 

The color in this satellite image is created by a massive phytoplankton bloom. The milky blue areas indicate a high abundance of coccolithophores, plankton that are plated with white calcium carbonate. Other colors may be from other plankton types and suspended sediment. The graphs, which are from a study over approximately the same area, show the relationship between the timing of blooms and the timing of sea ice. Diatoms (indicated by chlorophyll concentrations) dominate the earlier bloom that is associated with ice melt. Coccolithophores (indicated by calcite concentrations) dominate late summer bloom. They thrive in stable surface layers of warm, low-salinity, low-nutrient water. Coccolithophore blooms are becoming more frequent in the southern Barents Sea and expanding northward to the high Arctic.
All data shown are based on analysis of satellite imagery. This natural-color image was taken by the Moderate Resolution
Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Aqua satellite.
NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC; graph from Signorini and McClain 2009 [153]; caption based on Signorini and McClain 2009 [153], Carlowicz and Riebeek 2012 [154] 

 

  

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Changes in benthic communities in two Arctic fjords, Svalbard, Norway: photographs from 1984 and 2006

LifeLinkedtoIce Changes in benthic communities small

 

The photographs represent benthic communities in the two fjords before and after abrupt ecosystem changes characterized by a shift from rock-encrusting types of algae to taller filamentous (C) and leaf-like (D) forms of seaweed. Areas within the white lines are covered by these seaweeds. The invertebrate communities changed at the same time. In Kongsfjord, for example, the sea anemones that were common before this regime shift (visible in A) declined rapidly and sea urchins increased.
From Kortsch et al. 2012 [172]

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Polar cod and capelin in diets of thick-billed murres, comparing a recent study with 30 years ago: low, mid, and high Arctic locations in eastern Canada

LifeLinkedtoIce diets of thick billed murres

 

 

This chart shows the breakdown by species of identified fish in stomach samples of murres. Polar cod continue to dominate the diets of high Arctic murres, but capelin appear to have replaced polar cod in the low Arctic, where ice has retreated to the greatest extent. Capelin have also appeared in the mid Arctic, where the species was absent in 1985 samples but present in a third of the samples from 2007/08.
From Provencher et al. 2012 [209]

 

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

The fate of first-year pollock in fall and winter depends on availability of large crustacean plankton

LifeLinkedtoIce First year pollock

 

 

 

Predation, cannibalism by larger pollock, and starvation in winter increase for first-year pollock in years with earlier sea ice melt (top diagram).
From Hunt et al. 2011 [212]

 

 

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Number of nesting ivory gulls and area of the nearby polynya they are assumed to feed in during pre-breeding season, Severnaya Zemlya, Kara Sea, Russia, 1993 to 1996 and 2006 to 2011

LifeLinkedtoIce Nesting ivory gulls

The bars show survey results at the world’s largest ivory gull nesting colony on Domashny Island. Numbers of nesting ivory gulls fluctuate from year to year depending on environmental conditions in the pre-breeding season (mid-May). In the northeastern Kara Sea, where wildlife is limited by the harsh ice conditions, polynyas are important for foraging [255]. More gulls are able to build up enough fat resources for egg-laying when there is more open water in a large nearby polynya prior to nesting. If the area of the polynya remains below a threshold of about 10,000 square kilometers (dashed line) by mid-May, dramatically fewer gulls nest at the colony, as occurred in 1996, 2009 and 2011. 

From Gavrilo 2011 [222] 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Arctic marine mammals rely on a diversity of ice habitats and prey items

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic marine mammals

 

Based on Laidre et al. 2008 [266], revisions based on Stirling 1980 [40], Gilchrist and Robertson 2000 [256] for polar bear habitats; Stirling 1980 [40], Laidre and Heide-Jorgensen 2011 [281], Laidre et al. 2004 [302] for narwhal habitats and diet; Loseto et al. 2009 [303] for beluga diet; Lawson and Hobson 2000 [304], Hammill et al. 2005 [305] for harp seal diet 

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Eight Arctic Marine Areas around which monitoring is being coordinated

LifeLinkedtoIce Arctic Marine Areas

 

Adapted from Gill et al. 2011 [429]

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Inter-community sharing network for country foods: sources of food received by Igloolik in 2007

LifeLinkedtoIce Sharing network

 

 

Trading and sharing foods is a powerful adaptive measure to cope with food shortages. The width of the lines reflects the importance of each pathway in this network, which is based on interviews with Igloolik residents in 2008. Adapted from Ford and Beaumier 2011 [387]; inset map from Google Earth

 

 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Sample Polar View Floe Edge Service satellite image map, March 30, 2013

LifeLinkedtoIce Polar View  Floe Edge Service

Image provided by Noetix Research 

 

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Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

ABA 2013. Appendix 3.1

ABA Appendix 3 1

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013. Appendix 3.1 Terrestrial Mammals.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 3.2

ABA Appendix 3 2

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 3.2 Marine Mammals

 

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 4.1

ABA Appendix 4 1

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 4.1 Breeding bird species in the different geographic zones of the low and high Arctic.

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.1

ABA Appendix 9 1

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.1

List of all Arctic vascular plant species (with PAF code number) and their distribution in the 21 Arctic floristic provinces and 5 subzones based on Elven (2007).

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.2

ABA Appendix 9 2

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.2

The 106 Arctic endemic vascular plant species (with PAF code number) and their distribution in the Arctic floristic provinces and subzones (A-E) compiled from Elven (2007). 

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.3

ABA Appendix 9 3

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.3

Borderline vascular plant species (“b”) with indication of PAF code number, reaching the southernmost part of the Arctic subzone E. Arctic floristic provinces, subzones (A-E), neighbouring boreal or boreo-alpine zone (N) derived from Elven (2007).

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.4

ABA Appendix 9 4

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.4

Stabilized introductions (*) and casual introductions (**) among the vascular plants in the Arctic derived from Elven (2007) with indication of PAF code number. Arctic floristic provinces and subzones according to Elven (2007). Species ordered by the number of floristic provinces where the species occurs. 

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.5

ABA Appendix 9 5

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.5

The assignment of liverwort genera of Arctic Russia to families after Konstantinova et al. (2009) and Damsholt (2002). Differences in family classification highlighted in violet. Species-rich families are highlighted in grey.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.6

ABA Appendix 9 6

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.6

Species list of liverworts of Svalbard (Frisvoll & Elvebakk 1996) with nomenclature of families after Damsholt (2002). Species-rich families are highlighted in grey.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.7

ABA Appendix 9 7

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.7

Species list with full names of liverworts of Greenland according to Damsholt (2010, unpublished) including 22 families, 50 genera and 173 species.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 9.8

ABA Appendix 9 8

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 9.8

The thirty moss families of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with reference number (Ireland et al. 1987) in brackets. Number of species in each family, number of genera in family, and number of species in each genera are given.Species-rich genera and families are highlighted in grey.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 11

ABA Appendix 11

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 11.

Taxa of hetorotrophic protists reported from Foxe Basin, Canada (FB), Disko Bay, W Greenland (DB; Vors 1993), the Greenland Sea (GLS; Ikävalko & Gradinger 1997) and Northern Baffin Bay, Canada (NBB; Lovejoy et al. 2002). 18S rRNA genes that are available in Genbank are indicated (18S GB). Sequences recovered from Arctic 18S rRNA gene surveys (see text) are indicated according to frequency under ‘Arctic Gene’. Genera that have also been retrieved from Arctic 18S rRNA gene surveys are marked with an asterics.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 12.1

 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 12.1

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 12.2

 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 12.2

 

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 15.1

ABA Appendix 12 1 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 15.1

Baselines for parasite diversity.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 15.2

ABA Appendix 12 2 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 15.2

Parasite diversity and species richness – emphasizing terrestrial mammals as a model.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 17.1

ABA Appendix 17 1

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 17.1

Selected phylogenetic studies of (or including) Arctic taxa. Markers used: nDNA = nuclear DNA marker; RAPD = random amplified polymorphic DNA; AFLP = amplified fragment length polymorphism, ITS = internal transcribed spacer; mtDNA = mitochondrial DNA (cytb = cytochrome b; COI = cytochrome oxidase I; COI III = cytochrome oxidase III), seq = sequence data; rest = restriction data; cpDNA = chloroplast DNA; amtDNA = ancient mtDNA; SSCP = single stranded conformation polymorphism.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 17.2

ABA Appendix 17 2

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 17.2

Cryptic speciation in selected Arctic terrestrial and marine species. Markers used: nDNA = nuclear DNA marker; AFLP = amplified fragment length polymorphism, ITS = internal transcribed spacer; mtDNA = mitochondrial DNA (cytb = cytochrome b; CR = control region; COI = cytochrome oxidase I; COIII = cytochrome oxidase III)), seq = sequence data; rest = restriction data; cpDNA = chloroplast DNA, цsats = microsatellites.

 

 

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ABA 2013. Appendix 17.3

ABA Appendix 17 3

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Appendix 17.3

Phylogeographic and population genetics studies of selected Arctic species. Markers used: nDNA = nuclear DNA; RAPD = random amplified polymorphic DNA; AFLP = amplified fragment length polymorphism, ITS = internal transcribed spacer; mtDNA = mitochondrial DNA (cytb = cytochrome b; COI = cytochrome oxidase I), SNP = single nucleotide polymorphisms, seq = sequence data; rest = restriction data; cpDNA = chloroplast DNA; amtDNA = ancient mtDNA; SSCP = single stranded conformation polymorphism. Current Distribution: HA = Holarctic; NA = Nearctic; PA = Palearctic; wBer = western Beringia.

 

 

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World species richness in vascular plants

ABA 2013 01 01 World species richness in vascular plants 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

World species richness in vascular plants (from Settele et al. 2010; printed with permission from Pensoft Publishers).

 

 

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Circumpolar Calidris sandpiper species richness

ABA 2013 01 02 Calidris 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Circumpolar Calidris sandpiper species richness.
From Zöckler (1998).

 

 

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Comparison of the three year running average for the CBMP pelagic Arctic fish index and the Arctic Oscillation (AO).

ABA 2013 Box 01 04 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 1.4 Figure 1.

Comparison of the three year running average for the CBMP pelagic Arctic fish index and the Arctic Oscillation (AO).
Oscillation data from: http://esri.noaa.gov/psd/data/correlation/ao.data

 

 

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Distribution of population time series data across the political cooperation area of CAFF (red line).

ABA 2013 Box 01 04 Fig2 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Distribution of population time series data across the political cooperation area of CAFF (red line).

 

 

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ABA 2013 Figure 1.3.

ABA 2013 01 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 1.3. In 1987, the breeding population of common murre Uria aalge in the Barents Sea collapsed as a result of concomitantly low populations of their preferred prey, 0-group Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, capelin Mallotus villosus and 0-group Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. These low fish population levels were probably caused by a combination of climate variability, ocean current variability and overharvest with different weight of these causes between populations. Since such a situation of concomitantly low populations has not occurred since then (upper panel), the annual common murre population growth on Hornøya in NE Norway has remained high, and the murre population on this island is now higher than before the collapse (from Erikstad et al. 2013).

 

 

 

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Common eider population depletion and recovery in W Greenland from the early 19th century to the present.

ABA 2013 01 04 Common eider 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 1.4. Common eider Somateria mollissima population depletion and recovery in W Greenland from the early 19th century to the present (estimates by F. Merkel in litt. based on data from Müller 1906 (down collection), Merkel 2002, 2004a, Christensen & Falk 2001 and annual growth rates from 2001 to 2007 in NW Greenland from Merkel 2010). The depletion was probably mainly caused by overharvest (hunting and egg collection), while the recovery was the result of tightened legislation and cooperation with local hunters since 2001 (Gilliland et al. 2009, Merkel 2010).

 

 

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Arctic Ocean sea ice loss in summer has occurred much faster than projections had anticipated.

ABA 2013 01 05 Arctic Ocean sea ice loss in summer 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 1.5. Arctic Ocean sea ice loss in summer has occurred much faster than projections had anticipated (moderated from Stroeve et al. 2012

 

 

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Temperature response

ABA 2013 01 06 Temperature 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 1.6. Temperature response (°C) to an increase of CO2 from 280 to 400 p.p.m. calculated as ‘Earth System Sensitivity’ resulting in significantly larger sensitivity than in ‘traditional’ models. From Lunt et al. (2010) and Richardson et al. (2011). Reprinted with permission from Nature Publishing Group.

 

 

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Global patterns of species richness for mammals (A) and birds (B).

ABA 2013 02 01 Global patterns of species richness mammals and birds 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 2.1. Global patterns of species richness for mammals (A) and birds (B). Maps produced by the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen.

 

 

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Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group.

ABA 2013 Table 02 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 2.1. Selected characteristics of species occurring in the Arctic, by taxonomic group. In addition to those species listed, there are an estimated 7,100 described and as-yet undescribed species of endoparasites and several thousand groups of microorganisms.

 

 

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Number of terrestrial mammal species occupying low and high Arctic zones in each of the circumpolar Arctic regions

ABA 2013 03 01 Terrestiral Mammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.1. Number of terrestrial mammal species occupying low and high Arctic zones in each of the circumpolar Arctic regions. Data are summarized from Appendix 3.1.

 

 

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Number of marine mammal species in Arctic marine regions

ABA 2013 03 02 Marine Mammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.2. Number of marine mammal species in Arctic marine regions classified by resident species (n = 11 total) or all species (including seasonal visitors, n = 35 total).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary of historical population estimates for 22 circumpolar caribou and wild reindeer herds

ABA 2013 Table 03 01 caribou reindeer 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.1. Summary of historical population estimates for 22 circumpolar caribou and wild reindeer herds. Data courtesy of Circum-Arctic Rangifer Monitoring Assessment Network (CARMA) and D.E. Russell & A. Gunn; http://www.carmanetwork.com/display/public/home. Data vary substantially among herds and over time in accuracy and precision, and represent only general patterns of abundance.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary of major features of small rodent population dynamics at circumpolar monitoring sites with rodent focus.

ABA 2013 Table 03 02 Rodent 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.2. Summary of major features of small rodent population dynamics at circumpolar monitoring sites with rodent focus. In addition, reports of relative abundance of small rodents in association with breeding bird studies from approximately the last 15 years can be found at the Arctic Birds Breeding Conditions Survey: http://www.arcticbirds.net

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Lemming abundance trends

ABA 2013 Box 03 01 LemmingAbundance 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 3.1 Figure1. Temporal changes in lemming abundance at various circumpolar sites: A)Taymyr Peninsula, Russia (Siberian brown lemming, stars are years with unquantifi ed high densities; data courtesy of B. Ebbinge & I. Popov); B) Banks Island, Canada (Nearctic collared lemming and Nearctic brown lemming; data courtesy of Parks Canada and L. Nguyen); C) Bylot Island, Canada (Nearctic brown lemming in wet (black circles) and mesic (open circles) habitats; data courtesy G. Gauthier); D) NE Greenland (Nearctic collared lemming at Traill Island (black triangles) and Zackenberg (open triangles); data courtesy of B. Sittler and N.M. Schmidt).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Migratory tundra caribou trends

ABA 2013 Box 03 02 CaribouAbundance 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 3.2 Figure1. Recent time series abundance estimates (figures in thousands of animals) for some migratory tundra caribou and wild reindeer herds (data courtesy of Circum Arctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA), and Russell & Gunn 2012).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Main ecological relationships

ABA 2013 03 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.3. Main ecological relationships linking humans, terrestrial carnivorous mammals and their shared prey, as well as some of the emotions felt by humans towards carnivores.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic

ABA 2013 03 04 Diversity 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.4. Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic (based on IUCN distribution maps http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 Examples of historical and recent distribution changes observed in terrestrial carnivorous mammals in the Arctic.

ABA 2013 Table 03 03 Carnivorous 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.4. Diversity of terrestrial carnivorous mammals across the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic (based on IUCN distribution maps http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Regions used to enumerate Arctic marine mammal species

ABA 2013 03 05 MarineMammal 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.5. Regions used to enumerate Arctic marine mammal species. High Arctic and low Arctic marine boundaries are shown with solid and dashed lines, respectively. These were used to define areas in Appendix 3.2. We do not include species that only use sub-Arctic waters, except for the seasonally ice covered Sea of Okhotsk, entirely within the sub-Arctic, where several populations of core Arctic marine mammals occur. Note that while populations and species are enumerated within regions, individuals frequently cross several regional boundaries.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species richness of marine mammals

ABA 2013 03 06 MarineMammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.6. Species richness of marine mammals (n = 11 core Arctic marine mammals only) in high and low Arctic waters.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species richness map of marine mammal

ABA 2013 03 07 MarineMammal 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 3.7. Species richness map of marine mammal that are present or seasonally occur in low and high Arctic waters at any time of the year (n = 35).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Subpopulations or stocks for each true Arctic marine mammal together with abundance estimate

ABA 2013 Table 03 05 MarineMammals 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 3.5. Subpopulations or stocks for each true Arctic marine mammal together with abundance estimate (abundance may be from dedicated survey with 95% CI, ballpark/rough estimate, or simulated from Population Viability Analysis). Year for estimate is given together with known trend in abundance (increasing, decreasing, stable or unknown). See text for rates.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Avian biodiversity in different regions of the Arctic

ABA 2013 04 01 AvianBiodiversity 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.1. Avian biodiversity in different regions of the Arctic. Charts on the inner circle show species numbers of different bird groups in the high Arctic, on the outer circle in the low Arctic. The size of the charts is scaled to the number of species in each region, which ranges from 32 (Svalbard) to 117 (low Arctic Alaska).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Major flyways of Arctic birds.

ABA 2013 04 02 Flyways 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.2. Major flyways of Arctic birds. Bird migration links Arctic breeding areas to all other parts of the globe (adapted from ACIA 2005).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ᖃᖓᑕᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕕᐅᒐᔪᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒧᖓᐅᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᑎᖕᒥᐊᕐᓄᑦ

ABA 2013 04 02 Flyways Inuktitut 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

ᖃᖓᑕᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕕᐅᒐᔪᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒧᖓᐅᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᑎᖕᒥᐊᕐᓄᑦ. ᑎᖕᒥᐊᑦ ᑎᑭᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑕᓄᑦ
ᒪᓂᒃᑖᕐᕕᐅᕙᒃᓱᑎᒃ ᐊᑕᖃᑎᒌᒍᑕᐅᕗᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᓕᖕᓄᑦ (ᐃᔾᔨᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐋᕿᒋᐊᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᑯᓇᖓᑦ ACIA 2005).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Основные пролетные пути арктических птиц:

ABA 2013 04 02 Flyways Russian 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Основные пролетные пути арктических птиц: ежегодные миграции связывают гнездовья птиц в тундре с местами их
зимовок по всему миру (адаптировано из доклада ACIA, 2005).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 Migratory links of shorebirds breeding on the Taimyr Peninsula

ABA 2013 04 04 MigratoryLinks 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.4. Migratory links of shorebirds breeding on the Taimyr Peninsula, N Central Siberia, based on recoveries of ringed individuals. 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Numbers of seabird species in the Northern Hemisphere in relation to latitude

ABA 2013 04 05 Seabirds 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.5. Numbers of seabird species in the Northern Hemisphere in relation to latitude, by 10 ºN zones, beginning at the equator. Only Atlantic and Pacific species are included (compiled from maps in Harrison 1996).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Change in the diet of nestling thick-billed murres U.

ABA 2013 04 06 Diet 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.6. Change in the diet of nestling thick-billed murres U. lomvia at Coats Island, 1981-2009. The “Benthic” category includes sculpins (Cottidae, Agonidae) and blennies (Sticheidae, Pholidae, Bleniidae, Zoarcidae). “Other” consists principally of invertebrates.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Trends in Arctic landbirds from Christmas Bird Count records between 1966 and 2005

ABA 2013 04 07 LandbirdsTrend 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 4.7. Trends in Arctic landbirds from Christmas Bird Count records between 1966 and 2005 (data courtesy of National Audubon Society and P. Blancher).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Amphibian and reptile taxa of the Arctic.

ABA 2013 Table 05 01 AmphibianReptile 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 5.1. Amphibian and reptile taxa of the Arctic. ‘Redlisted’ denotes taxa on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. * denotes known trends over the past 10-20 years.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Known locations of Western Hemisphere Arctic amphibians.

ABA 2013 05 02 Frog 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 5.2. Known locations of Western Hemisphere Arctic amphibians. Wood frog locations are represented by brown dots. Boreal chorus frog locations are represented by yellow dots.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

The changing relative percentages of herbivorous, aquatic and other terrestrial insect species

ABA 2013 07 01 Change 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 7.1. The changing relative percentages of herbivorous, aquatic and other terrestrial insect species groups with respect to increasing climate severity within the Arctic regions of North America. Note that the aquatic species are predominantly dipteran flies with larval aquatic stages and water beetles (redrawn from Danks 1992).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

A  typical biodiversity profile across invertebrate taxa for a high Arctic region

ABA 2013 Table 07 01 Invertebrate 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.1. A typical biodiversity profile across invertebrate taxa for a high Arctic region: the diversity of the terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates of Svalbard, listing the number of families, genera and species for each known group.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Number of genera and species of insect within each family

ABA 2013 Table 07 02 Invertebrates 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 7.2. Number of genera and species of insect within each family across the Nearctic region illustrating further the taxonomic biodiversity within a selected class of Arctic invertebrate. Data are from Danks (1981) and should be viewed with the caveats noted in the text. Note also that the boundary between the high and low Arctic in the Canadian Archipelago diff ers slightly from that used in other sections of the Assessment.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic territory according to the CAVM

ABA 2013 09 01 BioclimaticSubzones 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 9.1. Bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic territory according to the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM Team 2003, Walker et al. 2005).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Map of species richness and endemicity of Arctic vascular plant floras in floristic provinces of the Arctic

ABA 2013 09 02 SpeciesRichness 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 9.2. Map of species richness and endemicity of Arctic vascular plant floras in floristic provinces of the Arctic. Species richness of the fl oristic provinces is expressed as percentage of the total species richness of the Arctic (2,218 species), and species endemicity of the floristic provinces as rounded off percentage of the total number of Arctic endemic species (106). Floristic provinces and subzones according to Elven (2007).

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 Characteristics of the Arctic vascular plant flora.

ABA 2013 09 03 Characteristic 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 9.3. Characteristics of the Arctic vascular plant flora.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Distribution types and plant functional types of the 106 Arctic endemic vascular plant species.

ABA 2013 09 04 Distribution 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 9.4. Distribution types and plant functional types of the 106 Arctic endemic vascular plant species.

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Summary table of Arctic vascular plant species

ABA 2013 Table 09 01 VascularPlantSpecies 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 9.1. Summary table of Arctic vascular plant species and distribution by Arctic flora province and subzone based on Elven (2007). Arctic floristic provinces, subzones (A-E), neighbouring boreal or boreal-alpine zone (N) and distribution derived from Elven (2007).

 

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Species numbers in floristic provinces and subzones.

ABA 2013 Table 09 02 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 9.2. Species numbers in floristic provinces and subzones.

 

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Fourteen species and subspecies distributed in all 21 floristic provinces and five subzones.

ABA 2013 Table 09 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 9.3. Fourteen species and subspecies distributed in all 21 floristic provinces and five subzones.

 

 

 

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

The 20 Arctic endemic species and subspecies

ABA 2013 Table 09 04 EndemicSpecies 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 9.4. The 20 Arctic endemic species and subspecies known only from one Arctic floristic province and one subzone as rare (r), and as such potentially threatened. Species ordered by family; their status in Talbot et al. (1999) is also indicated where included: VU = vulnerable; DD = data defi cient; LR = lower risk; nt = near threatened.

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

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Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

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