Stressors

Stressors

 

General information

shipping 218 144 Humans disturb the environment in various ways, notably from industrial development and other activities in formerly pristine areas. Components of the earth system affect one another in a web of feedbacks, including between ecosystems and climate. Conservation is the human attempt to avoid or minimize the impacts of human activity on species and habitats. This chapter examines all three topics. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

 

 Stressors publication

 

Sub Categories

Emerging issues and challenges

Since the publication of Arctic Flora and Fauna: Status and Conservation in 2001, many changes have occurred in the Arctic environment. Most notably, the significance of climate change as an impact factor has been greatly elevated, in the Arctic as well as at a global scale. A warming climate in the Arctic is projected to set off many environmental changes including melting sea ice, increased runoff, and an eventual rise in sea level with immense coastal implications. Some of these changes are already being felt. Increasing temperatures are already showing many effects on Arctic biodiversity including the northward movement of more southern species, shrubbing and greening of the land, changing plant communities and their associated fauna, increases in migrating invasive species displacing native Arctic inhabitants, and the emergence of new diseases. Additionally, changes in the timing of events (phenology) are an aspect of change which may lead to mismatches between related environmental factors. (Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.)

Shipping

Current vessel activities in the Arctic can be categorized into four main groups: community re-supply, cargo ships, fishing activity and tourism. The majority of vessel activity, and consequently ship accidents, takes place along the coast (Fig. 14.5). Therefore continental shelves, which are areas of high biodiversity and production and large aggregations of Arctic marine fauna, are most susceptible to impacts from ship traffic. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

Disturbance

Cultural services, beyond those associated with provisioning services, reach people in the Arctic and around the world. Tourism is increasingly popular in the Arctic, especially on cruise ships. Tourism brings opportunities for income, as well as the potential for largely localized social and environmental disturbance. It can also create advocates for Arctic conservation among those who have experienced the region and its biodiversity first-hand. There are also many non-market values associated with the simple existence of the Arctic and its ecosystems, which many people appreciate from afar without any direct experience in the region. In a world with fewer undisturbed places, intact ecosystems such as those in the Arctic are likely to become increasingly scarce and thus increasing valuable. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

Development

As human society has become more mobile, the transfer of species beyond their native ranges has similarly increased. Human-induced biological invasions now occur around the world and are a leading cause in the loss of biodiversity. While few invasions are currently known from the Arctic compared with lower latitudes, changes in climate and patterns of human use are likely to increase the susceptibility of Arctic ecosystems to invasion. Much of that increased risk of invasion may come from increased shipping, energy development, mineral exploration and associated shore-based developments such as ports, roads and pipelines. (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013.)

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Pathways of impacts on Arctic humans resulting from changes in sea ice and associated changes in biodiversity

LifeLinkedtoIce Pathways

 

Figure 38. Pathways of impacts on Arctic humans resulting from changes in sea ice and associated changes in biodiversity

Joan Eamer

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Settlements dot Arctic coastlines even in sparsely populated areas such as Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

LifeLinkedtoIce Settlements

 

 

Adapted from Hovelsrud et al. 2011
[196]

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

The circumpolar distribution of the Inuit: Canada, Alaska (US), Greenland (Denmark) and Chukotka (Russia)

LifeLinkedtoIce Distribution of Inuit

 

 

 

From Ford 2009 [372], based on data from Makavik Cartographic Services

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Mean September sea ice thickness averaged over seven selected models at present and by the time the Arctic is nearly sea-ice-free

LifeLinkedtoIce Sea ice thickness

Note the scale differences between the two panels.

 

From Wang and Overland 2012 [17]

 

 

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 

The data can be downloaded freely. Users are requested to reference the source.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., Lárusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-25-7.

Mercury

ABA 2013 13 07 Mercury 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 13.7. Relationship between (a) particulate mercury concentration and water discharge for the Mackenzie River at Arctic Red River, and (b) changes in particulate and dissolved mercury concentrations and water discharge for the Mackenzie River during the spring freshet 2004. (Source: Leitch et al. 2007 from Stern et al. 2012).

 

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Locations of sub-Arctic and Arctic shipping accidents and incident causes, 1995-2004

ABA 2013 14 05 Map ShipAccidents 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.5. Locations of sub-Arctic and Arctic shipping accidents and incident causes, 1995-2004

(source: AMSA 2009).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ᓇᓂ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐱᓂᕐᓗᒃᓯᒪᔪᕕᓂᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᕐᓘᕿᔪᕕᓂᐅᓂᖏᑦ 1995-2004 (AMSA, 2009)

ABA 2013 14 05 Map ShipAccidents Inuktitut 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

ᓇᓂ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐱᓂᕐᓗᒃᓯᒪᔪᕕᓂᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ
ᐱᕐᓘᕿᔪᕕᓂᐅᓂᖏᑦ 1995-2004 (AMSA, 2009)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Места аварий и происшествий с морскими судами в 1995-2004 гг. (AMSA, 2009)

ABA 2013 14 05 Map ShipAccidents Russian 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Места аварий и происшествий с морскими
судами в 1995-2004 гг. (AMSA, 2009)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

 Number of ships transiting and landing

ABA 2013 14 06 ShipTransit 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 14.6. Number of ships a) transiting through the Northwest Passage (five year intervals, from 1975 to 2009), and b) landing in Greenland (cruise ships only, from 2003 to 2008. (Sources: AMSA 2009 and NORDREG 2009.)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑦ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᑦ a) ᐃᑳᕆᐊᖅᑐᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑑᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖓᒍᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔫᑉ

ABA 2013 14 06 ShipTransit Inuktitut 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖏᑦ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᑦ a) ᐃᑳᕆᐊᖅᑐᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑑᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖓᒍᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔫᑉ
ᐊᑭᐊᓄᐊᕐᕆᐊᕕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑎᒍᑦ (ᑕᓪᓕᒪᐃᑦ ᐊᕕᒃᑐᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ 1975−ᒥᒃ
2009-ᒧᑦ), ᐊᒻᒪᓗ b) ᒥᑦᑐᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᑲᓛᖡᑦ ᓄᓈᓐᓄᑦ, ᐊᑯᑭᑦᑐᕐᒥᐅᑕᓄᑦ
(ᐳᓚᕋᑎᓖᑦ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ, 2003−ᒥᒃ 2008−ᒧᑦ). (AMSA−ᑯᓐᓂᒃ 2009
ᐊᒻᒪᓗ NORDREG−ᑯᓐᓂᒃ 2009.)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Количество судов,

ABA 2013 14 06 ShipTransit Russian 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Количество судов, а) прошедших по Северо-Западному проходу (с пятилетним
интервалом с 1975 по 2009 гг.), и b) заходы в Гренландию (только круизные суда, с 2003
по 2008 гг. (AMSA 2009 и NORDREG 2009.)

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Ship transits of the Northwest Passage 1906-2011

ABA 2013 16 01 ShipTransit 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 16.1. Ship transits of the Northwest Passage 1906-2011. From the NWT State of the Environment report (ENR 2011) with data from NORDREG updated to 2012.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Rate of population decline of bird colonies in the municipality of Upernavik

ABA 2013 Box 18 05 Seabirds 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Box 18.5 Figure 1. Rate of population decline of bird colonies in the municipality of Upernavik in relation to distance to the nearest settlement or town. The shorter the distance, the greater the rate of decline (Evans & Kampp 1991).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Marine incidents involving cruise ships in Arctic and Antarctic waters

ABA 2013 Table 18 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 18.1. Marine incidents involving cruise ships in Arctic and Antarctic waters (the same vessels often alternate polar region according to season) (aggregated from reports from national coast guards, admiralty courts and insurers, and www.cruisejunkie.com).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Trends in the six ecosystem services examined in this chapter (Provisioning and Cultural Services)

ABA 2013 Table 18 03 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 18.3. Trends in the six ecosystem services examined in this chapter (Provisioning and Cultural Services). Note that an increasing trend is not necessary a good thing overall, as increased use of Arctic resources may lead to increased conflicts among user groups, or increasing existence values may be the result of decreased wilderness or wild species creating higher value for what remains.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Comparison of land areas impacted by oil and gas exploitation in northern Alaska and NW Siberia

ABA 2013 Table 19 01 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 19.1. Comparison of land areas impacted by oil and gas exploitation in northern Alaska and NW Siberia, respectively (Khitun & Rebristaya 2002, Khitun 1997, VNIPIGazdovycha 2005, Forbes et al. 2009, Gilders & Cronin 2000, Walker 1996).

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Map of the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, showing industrial infrastructure and other features.

ABA 2013 19 01 Yamal 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Figure 19.1. Map of the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, showing industrial infrastructure and other features.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Trends in the five indicators considered in this chapter (Disturbance, Feedbacks and Conservation)

ABA 2013 Table 19 04 

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA) 2013.

Table 19.4. Trends in the five indicators considered in this chapter (Disturbance, Feedbacks and Conservation). Note that “increasing” may be regarded as positive or negative depending on the indicator.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri.

Arctic biodiversity is being affected by numerous local and global pressures.
stressors

Arctic biodiversity is being affected by numerous local and global pressures.


Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Current marine shipping uses in the Arctic
invasive shipping

Current marine shipping uses in the Arctic

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

 
Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s
harvest alaska

Wild food harvests in Alaska by area, 1990s

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Percentage of households who reported that more than 75% of meat-fish was harvested from the NWT
harvest nwt

Percentage of households who reported that more than 75% of meat-fish was harvested from the NWT.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Consumption of harvested meat/fish in Inuit Households
harvest inuit

Consumption of harvested meat/fish in Inuit Households.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)
www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

In Russia, the main threat for the most productive post- Soviet reindeer herding areas in the Nenets and Yamalo- Nenets Autonomous Okrugs is the rapidly accelerating oil and gas extraction
reindeerherding siberia

A false color Quickbird-2 satellite image of a portion of the Bovanenkovo Gas Field on the Yamal Peninsula in West Siberia. Image acquired 4 July 2004. The construction phase began in the late 1980s. From that period onward there remain visible signs of extensive off-road vehicle traffic across the terrain. Many of those tracks have naturally revegetated and now appear as bright red, indicating dense grass- and sedge-dominated vegetation. The road network was built in the mid-1990s, which has reduced off-road traffic significantly. However, infrastructure blocks segments of migration routes for Nenets and their reindeer herds, and pasture quality can be negatively affected by road dust, petrochemicals, trash left on the tundra, and even feral dogs abandoned by workers.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is 

The data can be downloaded freely.

Users are requested to reference it source.

i.e. Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010.

Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region.
Mammals Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region

Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region.

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

www.caff.is  
The data can be downloaded freely.
Users are requested to reference it source.

ARCTIC FLORA AND FAUNA: Status and Conservation. Documentation. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group (CAFF).

Source: Hilton-Taylor 2000.
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